NASA’s SLS Program: Affordability Concerns and the GAO’s Scrutiny

The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) has released a report revealing that senior officials within NASA have described the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) – the powerhouse rocket meant to drive its ambitious Artemis program to the moon – as “unaffordable.” The GAO’s report critiques what is perceived as a significant lack of transparency in the program’s expenditures.

Report Highlights:

  • The rocket is considered unsustainable at current expenditure levels.
  • The GAO criticized the opacity around the program’s ongoing costs.
  • Specific names of the officials making these claims were not disclosed in the report.

NASA, however, acknowledges the issue and has expressed its intent to work towards improving the program’s affordability. A roadmap has been designed, integrating both short-term and long-term strategies that aim for future cost savings. Key components of this strategy involve:

  • Stabilizing the flight schedule.
  • Enhancing efficiencies.
  • Encouraging innovation.
  • Modifying acquisition strategies to minimize cost risk.

GAO Report: Concerns Over Transparency

The GAO’s recent report underscores concerns regarding NASA’s transparency about the actual costs of the SLS program. Surprisingly, the process of reporting unveiled that NASA officials admit the rocket’s cost is too prohibitive to support its lunar exploration endeavors under the Artemis program.

Concerned Points by GAO:

  • NASA’s decision not to determine production costs of specific SLS rocket elements, such as core stages and necessary engines.
  • The agency’s reliance on a five-year production and operations cost estimate is seen as a weak tool for establishing a cost baseline.
  • The possibility of additional delays, particularly the Artemis II and Artemis III missions, which are now likely to be postponed until at least 2025 and 2026 respectively.

GAO’s report also emphasized the discrepancy among NASA officials regarding the impacts of such delays on the overall budget.

Is Cost Control Feasible for NASA?

While NASA deserves accolades for addressing the SLS rocket’s excessive costs – a concern echoed by critics for over a decade but largely overlooked by NASA and Congress – there are growing apprehensions about the agency’s ability to manage these costs.

Recent discussions about working with Aerojet, the primary contractor for the SLS rocket’s main engines, to trim the engine cost by 30% are met with skepticism. The proposed reduction aims to bring down each engine’s cost to $70.5 million by the end of the decade. Paul Martin, NASA’s inspector general, expressed doubts over this claim, indicating that certain crucial costs were not accounted for in the projections.

To put the cost perspective into context, competitors in the US rocket engine market offer comparable engines at much lower prices:

  • Blue Origin’s BE-4 engine is priced below $20 million.
  • SpaceX aims to push the cost of its Raptor rocket engine to under $1 million per engine.

The GAO’s Continued Monitoring

Despite the SLS (Space Launch System) being NASA’s most potent rocket, with Artemis I successfully launched in November 2022, concerns continue to plague the subsequent missions in the Artemis program. The challenges of predicting and controlling costs are magnified by the changing flight schedules. Uncertainties related to the rocket’s launch timeline can have significant implications for cost predictions.

  • Financial Requests: NASA has requested a staggering $11.2 billion for the fiscal year 2024 to fund the program until 2028. This request is in addition to the $11.8 billion already expended on initial capability development.

As it stands, the future of the SLS program will significantly depend on NASA’s ability to innovate, control costs, and provide clarity on its spending. Only time will reveal how successful these efforts are, but with the GAO closely monitoring, it’s evident that changes are imminent.

Future Prospects for the SLS Program

Given the evolving financial landscape and the immense scrutiny surrounding the SLS program, NASA finds itself at a crucial crossroads. Balancing the monumental aspirations of lunar exploration and settlement with budgetary constraints and the call for transparency will be a significant challenge for the agency.


The path ahead for NASA’s SLS program, while fraught with challenges, also holds immense promise. With the combined force of technological innovation, stakeholder engagement, and a redefined vision, the dream of extensive lunar exploration and beyond is attainable. However, the journey demands collaboration, transparency, and a steadfast commitment to excellence. With the world watching, NASA stands on the precipice of ushering in a new era of space exploration. The subsequent steps will determine not just the fate of the Artemis program but also the trajectory of humankind’s endeavors in space.

Ryan Lenett
At his core, Ryan’s true passion is helping others achieve their own independent goals in life. His skill sets consist of Scientific research, Gadget Reviews and Technical testing. Year over year, Ryan has consistently amassed revenue streams that exceed seven figures in value.